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小升初英语复习资料
FMT-  shelly 2016-03-28 12:42:29 发表于  [  影视娱乐  ]
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一:学生易错词汇

1.     a, an的选择:元音字母开头的单词用an,辅音字母开头的单词用a.

2.     am , is , are的选择:单数用is ,复数用are. I用am ,you用are.

3.     have , has的选择:表示某人有某物。单数用has ,复数用have. I, you用have .

4.     there is, there are的选择:表示某地有某物,某人。单数用there is ,复数用thereare.

5.     some, any的选择:肯定句用some,疑问句和否定句用any.

6.    疑问词的选择:what(什么) who (谁) where (哪里) whose (谁的)why(为什么)when(什么时候)

which(哪一个)howold (多大)how many(多少)howmuch(多少钱)

二:形容词比较级详解

当我们需要对事物作出比较时,需要用到比较级。比较级的句子结构通常是:

什么+动词be (am, is , are ) +形容词比较级+ than(比)+什么,如:

I’m taller and heavier than you.(我比你更高和更重。)

An elephant is bigger than a tiger.(一只大象比一只老虎更大。)

形容词的比较级是在形容词的基础上变化而来的,它的变化规则是:

①一般的直接在词尾加er,如tall -taller , strong - stronger ,

②以e结尾的,直接加r,如fine –finer ,

③以辅音字母加y结尾的,先改y为i再加er,如funny -funnier

④双写最后的字母再加er,如big –bigger, thin – thinner ,hot – hotter

☆注意比较的两者应该是互相对应的可比较的东西。

典型错误:My hairis longer than you.(我的头发比你更长。)

比较的两者是我的头发、你(整个人),那么比较的对象就没有可比性。

应该改为:My hairis longer than yours.或Myhair is longer than your hair.

比较级练习:

一、根据中文完成句子.

(1) 我比我的弟弟大三岁. I’m            than mybrother.

(2) 这棵树要比那棵树高. Thistree                     than that one.

(3) 你比他矮四厘米.     Youare                   than he.

(4) 谁比你重?                                   than you?

三:动词过去式详解动词的过去式的构成规则有:

A、规则动词

①一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked, learned , cleaned , visited

②以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived ,danced , used

③以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study –studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)

④双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped

B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:

sing – sang ,  eat – ate ,  see – saw , have – had , do – did , go –went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is– was ,  are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell –told , draw – drew , come – came ,  lose – lost , find – found , drink –drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt

四:动词现在分词详解动词的ing形式的构成规则:

①一般的直接在后面加上ing,如doing ,going , working , singing , eating

②以e结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing,如having, writing

③双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running, swimming , sitting , getting

五:人称和数

人称

主格

宾格

形容词性物主代词

第一人称

单数

I

me

my

复数

we

us

our

第二人称

单数

you

you

your

复数

you

you

your

第三人称

单数

he

him

his

she

her

her

it

it

its

复数

they

them

their

六:句型专项归类

1、肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如:

I’m a student.    She is a doctor.    He works ina hospital.

There are four fans in our classroom.     He will eat lunchat 12:00.       I watched TV yesterday evening.

2、否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:I’mnot a student.      She is not (isn’t) a doctor.

He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital.      Thereare not (aren’t) four fans in our classroom.

He will not (won’t) eat lunch at12:00.        I did not (didn’t) watch TVyesterday evening.

☆注意小结:否定句主要是在肯定句的基础上加上了否定词“not”。有动词be的句子则“not”加在be后面,可缩写成“isn’t,aren’t”,但am not一般都分开写。没有动词be的句子则要先在主要动词的前面加上一个助动词(do,does,did),然后在它后面加上“not”,你也可以把它们缩写在一起如“don’t, doesn’t , didn’t)。这三个助动词要根据人称和时态来选择,其中“does”只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而“did”只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用“did”。

3、一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes”,或“no”来回答。

如:Are youa student? Yes, I am / No, I’m not.

Is she a doctor? Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.

Does he work in a hospital? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.

Are there four fans in our classroom? Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t.

Are you going to buy a comic book tonight?  Yes, I am. / No, I am not.(Yes, we are. / No, we aren’t.)

Will he eat lunch at 12:00? Yes, I will. / No, I will not(won’t).

Are they swimming? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.

Did you watch TV yesterday evening? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

☆注意小结:一般疑问句是在肯定句的基础上,

①把动词be调到首位,其他照写,末尾标点符号变成问号即可。

②没有动词be的句子则要在句首加上一个助动词(do,does,did)再把紧跟在后面的动词变回原形,末尾标点符号变成问号即可。

这三个助动词也要根据人称和时态来选择,其中“does”只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而“did”只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用“did”。一般疑问句有个重要的原则就是问和答要一致,即问句里的第一个单词(助动词)和简略答句里的这个词是一致的。

4、特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what, where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子。此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用“yes、no”来回答。如:

What is this?  It’s a computer.

What does he do?  He’s a doctor.

Where are you going?  I’m going to Beijing.

Who played football with you yesterday afternoon?  Mike.

Which season do you like best?  Summer.

When do you usually get up?  I usually get up at 6:30.

Whose skirt is this?  It’s Amy’s.

Why do you like spring best?  Because I can plant trees.

How are you?  I’m fine. / I’m happy.

How did you go to Xinjiang?  I went to Xinjiang by train.

☆其中how又可以和其他一些形容词连用组成特殊疑问词组用来提问,如:how many(多少(数量)),

how much(多少(钱)), howtall(多高),how long(多长), how big(多大), how heavy(多重)

例句:How manypencils do you have? I have three pencils.

How many girls can you see? I can see four girls.

How many desks are there in your classroom? There are 51.

☆小结:howmany用来提问可数名词的数量,主要有以上三种句式搭配,

How many +名词复数+ do you have?  你有多少……?

How many +名词复数+ can you see?  你能看见多少……?

How many +名词复数+ are there…?   有多少……?

七:完全、缩略形式: I’m=Iam   he’s=he is   she’s=she is   they’re=theyare   you’re=you are   there’s=there is  they’re=theyare   can’t=can not   don’t=do not   doesn’t=doesnot  isn’t=is not  aren’t=are not  let’s=let us  won’t=will not   I’ll=I will    wasn’t=was not

总结:通常情况下,m即am,s即is(但let’s=let us),re即are ,nt即not(但can’t=cannot)

八:与字母相关的题型(注:五个元音字母是Aa  Ee  Ii  Oo  Uu )

九:pep小学英语词汇不完全归类表

学习用品(schoolthings):

pen钢笔pencil铅笔 pencil-case铅笔盒 ruler尺子 book书 bag包 comicbook漫画书 postcard明信片 newspaper报纸 schoolbag书包 eraser橡皮 crayon蜡笔 sharpener卷笔刀 story-book故事书 notebook笔记本 Chinesebook语文书 Englishbook英语书 mathbook数学书 magazine杂志 dictionary词典

人体(body):

foot脚 head头 face脸 hair头发 nose鼻子 mouth嘴 eye眼睛 ear耳朵 arm手臂 hand手 finger手指 leg腿 tail尾巴

颜色(colours):

red红 blue蓝 yellow黄 green绿 white白 black黑 pink粉红 purple紫orange橙brown棕

动物(animals):

cat猫 dog狗 pig猪 duck鸭 rabbit兔 horse马 elephant大象 ant蚂蚁 fish鱼 bird鸟 eagle鹰 beaver海狸 snake蛇 mouse老鼠 squirrel松鼠 kangaroo袋鼠 monkey猴 panda熊猫 bear熊 lion狮子 tiger老虎 fox狐狸 zebra斑马 deer鹿 giraffe长颈鹿 goose鹅 hen母鸡 turkey火鸡 lamb小羊 sheep绵羊 goat山羊 cow奶牛 donkey驴 squid鱿鱼 lobster龙虾 shark鲨鱼seal海豹spermwhale抹香鲸killerwhale虎鲸

人物(people):

friend朋友 boy男孩 girl女孩 mother母亲 father父亲 sister姐妹 brother兄弟 uncle叔叔;舅舅 man男人 woman女人 Mr.先生 Miss小姐 lady女士;小姐 mom妈妈 dad爸爸 parents父母 grandparents祖父母 grandma/grandmother(外)祖母 grandpa/grandfather(外)祖父 aunt姑姑 cousin堂(表)兄弟;堂(表)姐妹 son儿子 daughter女儿 baby婴儿 kid小孩 classmate同学 queen女王 visitor参观者 neighbour邻居 principal校长 universitystudent大学生 penpal笔友 tourist旅行者 people人物 robot机器人

职业(jobs):

teacher教师 student学生 doctor医生 nurse护士 driver司机 farmer农民 singer歌唱家 writer作家 actor男演员 actress女演员 artist画家 TVreporter电视台记者 engineer工程师 accountant会计 policeman(男)警察 salesperson销售员 cleaner清洁工 baseballplayer棒球运动员 assistant售货员 police警察

食品、饮料(food& drink):

rice米饭 bread面包 beef牛肉 milk牛奶 water水 egg蛋 fish鱼 tofu豆腐 cake蛋糕 hot dog热狗 hamburger汉堡包 Frenchfries炸薯条 cookie曲奇 biscuit饼干 jam果酱 noodles面条 meat肉 chicken鸡肉 pork猪肉 mutton羊肉 vegetable蔬菜 salad沙拉 soup汤 ice冰 ice-cream冰淇淋 Coke可乐 juice果汁 tea茶 coffee咖啡 breakfast早餐 lunch午餐 dinner/supper晚餐 meal一餐 

水果、蔬菜(fruit& vegetables)


FMT -  shelly 2021-05-06 14:21:48 重新编辑

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