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FMT-  Amy 2016-02-04 14:20:49 发表于  [  游戏/活动  ]
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The Chinese New Year, or Spring Festival , is a 15-day festival in traditional custom. It can be generally divided into three periods, the days preceding the festival, the festival days and the days after the Spring Festival Day. There are different customs related to each period:


中国的新年,也称之为春节,是一个长达十五天的传统节日。通常分为三部分,节前、节期和节后。每个阶段的习俗也不尽相同。



Preceding Days 节前



Cleaning and Purchasing | 扫尘和置办年货

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Cleaning before the New Year is a traditionin Chinese culture. The grounds, the walls, and every corner of the house need to be cleaned. In Chinese, “Dust” is a homophone for the word “old” (Chen), thus cleaning means to drive the bad luck or the old things away from the house to get ready for a new start. After cleaning people will go shopping and buy new clothes for the festival. People in China believe that since this is a new year they should buy a lot of new things. Purchasing new items symbolizes welcoming new things and getting ready for a new start.

 

在春节前扫尘,是中国文化素有的传统习惯。在扫尘之日,全家上下齐动手,用心打扫房屋、庭院、地面、墙壁、擦洗锅碗、拆洗被褥,让家中里里外外都焕然一新。其实,人们借助"尘"与"陈"的谐音表达除陈、除旧的意愿。扫尘过后,就能干干净净地迎接新年。扫尘之后,就要张罗年货和添置新衣了。中国人认为新年新气象,一切都应该是新的,置办年货也意味着辞旧迎新。

 

Spring Festival Couplets | 贴春联

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Couplets are typically pasted on doorways as a part of the festivals celebration. The custom of pasting couplets can be traced back over one thousand years to the Later Shu State (934 - 965). The original form of modern couplets was called “Taofu”, a piece of peach wood protecting against evil without any writing on. In the Song Dynasty (960 -1279), the antithetical couplets began to be written on the wood to express people’s good wishes as well as being a decoration. Later, the modern form of couplets appeared replacing peach wood with the red paper. The couplets include antithetical on two sides and a horizontal scroll hanging on the top.

贴春联是春节节庆活动的一部分,通常人们精选一幅大红春联贴于门上,为节日增加喜庆气氛。贴春联的习俗可追溯至一千多年前。现代春联的雏形最初被称为“桃符”,就是一片薄的无字桃花木,作用是驱妖除魔。不过到宋代的时候,春联的性质发生了质变。写在桃木上的春联开始用来表达人们的美好祝愿同时也用作装饰。再后来,春联开始写在红纸上从而取代了桃木。春联包括“框对”和“横披”两部分。“框对”贴于左右两个门框上,“横披”则贴于门媚的横木上。

 

Pasting the “Fu”   | 贴福字

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The character “Fu”, meaning good fortune or happiness, is used to express people’s good wishes and yearning for the future,so people usually paste it gates or some furniture in the house during the Chinese New Year. Pasting the “Fu” upside down, meaning the arrival of happiness or good fortune, is a widely accepted and popular custom among Chinese people. Other auspicious characters and patterns are added to express good wishes. In the ancient time, this character and the couplets were written by hand, but now, people can buy printed ones in shopping malls or supermarkets.Some shops even present these printed works to customers who buy something in their shops.


汉字里的“福”字意味着"福气"、"福运"。无论是现今还是过去,都寄托了人们对幸福生活的向往,也是对美好未来的祝愿。贴福字是中国由来已久的习俗。每逢新春佳节,家家户户都要在屋门上、墙壁上、门楣上贴上大大小小的"福"字,寓意是福运到来。将"福"字倒过来贴,表示"幸福已到""福气已到”。人们也会选择不同类型和样式的“福”字表达美好的祝愿。在过去,人们惯于手写春联和“福”字,但是现今不同往昔,在大型购物中心或者超市,随处都能买到印刷精美的春联和“福”字。有些商店甚至会自行准备这两样用来回赠顾客。

 

Paper-Cuts  | 剪纸

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Auspicious words or pictures are cut on red paper and pasted on windows to express good wishes for the future during the happy event.

在春节期间,人们通常会用红纸剪出吉祥话或者图案贴在窗户上用以表达对新年的美好祝愿。

 

New Year Pictures |  贴年画


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They originated in Tang Dynasty (618 - 907)with simple patterns to drive away evil. Now they are a kind of decoration for the festival. New meanings and patterns such as conventions, women and babies have been added to the old pictures. Different places in China have different styles of pictures.


贴年画的习俗始于唐朝,最初人们用一些样式简单的图画来驱妖除魔。现代的年画则是一种富于节庆意义的装饰。题材和样式在旧式年画的基础上演变为风俗、美女、娃娃等。不同地区的年画形式不一,风格迥异。

 

Greeting Cards | 贺卡

 

The Cards are prepared before the festival. In the past, some people sent cards to their friends, parents, teachers and other relatives during the happy event especially when they were not going to be with them on Spring Festival’s Eve. Words of blessing are written on the cards similar to Christmas cards. Now, with the advance of technology, the formof cards has changed, the custom of sending cards continues. Send Free Greeting Cards to your friends!

春节前人们会准备新春贺卡。以往如果在除夕之夜不能跟亲朋好友团聚,大家会在节期给亲朋好友以及师长寄出写满祝福问候的贺卡,这种贺卡类似于国外的圣诞卡片。时至今日,随着科技的发展,贺卡的种类也日新月异,不过寄贺卡的习俗仍旧存留。快给你的亲友寄出免费的电子贺卡吧!

 

The Gate gods  | 贴门神

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In Taoism and folk-custom, the gods of the Gate, one of the most popular gods, guard houses. Ancient people pasted their pictures on the door to drive away evil and keep their houses safe. Now their pictures are pasted on the doors during the Spring Festival.

门神是道教和民间习俗中共同信仰的守卫门户的神灵。过去人们会在屋门上张贴门神像用来驱魔镇宅。现如今中国各地过年都有贴门神的风俗。

 

Chinese Knots | 中国结

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They are prepared to decorate houses during the festival. They were first used to string jade pendants on clothes as decorations and these knots were widely used in different places such as flute,Xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), curtain and so on as decorations. Now these knots are used as gifts containing the blessing for other people or decorations.

现今大多数家庭在春节前用中国结来装饰室内。中国结最早用于装饰随身佩戴的玉佩上,也广泛用于装饰箫和笛这样的古代乐器。如今中国结被用作亲友间的送礼佳品及个人的随身饰物。

 


Festival Time 节中


Having reunion dinners, eating dumplings,staying up all night, setting off firecrackers and other activities are the most popular customs of the Spring Festival. Besides, visiting relatives, gifts are also exchanged during the first days of the festival.

吃一顿丰盛的团圆饭,当然少不了象征团圆的饺子;守岁,放鞭炮以及其他新春佳节的活动依然是最盛行的春节风俗。除此之外,在大年初一走亲访友,拜年也是春节必不可少的活动。

 

Eating Dumplings | 吃团圆饺子

The most important food during Chinese New Year is the dumpling (jiaozi). Made with flour and stuffed with different fillings, dumplings are usually eaten on the Eve. Because their shape resembles the Yuanbao (a kind of money used in ancient times), dumplings are eaten to bring wealth in the coming year. People wrap coins, candy, peanuts, or chestnuts in some of the dumplings to express different blessing for example a coin for wealth, candy for sweet life, peanuts for health and longevity, and chestnuts for vigor. It is also a custom in many parts of China to eat dumplings on Jan. 1st and Jan. 15th of lunar calendar.

春节的美食食谱中怎能少得了饺子呢!饺子用面粉制成,佐以不同的馅料,是除夕家宴上一道必不可少的菜肴。饺子象征来年财源滚滚来。有些家庭会在饺子里面包上硬币,糖果,花生或者栗子用来表达不同的祝愿。硬币代表来年财源滚滚,糖果代表幸福甜蜜,花生代表健康长寿,栗子则代表活力无穷。在中国的许多地区人们也有正月初一和十五吃饺子的习俗。

 

 

Staying Up | 守岁

The custom of staying up all night dates back to the Northern and Southern Dynasties (420-289). In ancient times, after the reunion dinner, families members chatted around the stove while waiting for the arrival of the new year. Now they watch CCTV New Years Gala.

守岁的习俗始于南北朝时期。中国民间在除夕有守岁的习惯,俗名“熬年”。守岁从吃年夜饭开始,这顿年夜饭要慢慢地吃,从掌灯时分入席,有的人家一直要吃到深夜。一家人围聚在火炉旁等待新年的到来。不过现在看春晚成了守岁期间的固定节目。

 

CCTV New Years Gala  | 看春晚

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This is a comprehensive art and performance event on the festivals eve. Since it was first broadcasted in 1983, it has become a beloved performance for most Chinese people. Performances include basic elements such as skits, cross talk (Xiangsheng), acrobatics, songs and dances. Recently more and more foreign artists are appearing which provides Chinese people a window into western cultures. The performance always ends with the song “Cannot Forget Tonight”.

春晚泛指由中央电视台在除夕夜举办的晚会节目,内容主要有小品类、歌曲类、舞蹈类、曲艺类等类型。自1983年举办第一届春节联欢晚会以来,看春晚已经成为大多数中国家庭除夕夜的固定节目了。近年来有越来越多的外国艺术家开始出现在春晚的舞台上,同时也开阔了中国人民了解西方文化的视野。伴随《难忘今宵》的歌声响起,春晚圆满落幕,这时新年的钟声也敲响了。

 

Firecrackers and Fireworks | 放烟火、点炮仗

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Firecrackers are always set off at midnight. In some places, people also set off firecrackers on the morning of the first day. The use of firecrackers can be traced to the legend of the Monster Nian in 2,000 years ago, when people threw bamboo into the fire to drive away the monster. After gun powder was invented, firecrackers replaced the bamboo. Because fires can be easily started by the firecrackers, many places ban firecrackers except in designated areas. Fireworks are also set off in the evening of Lantern Festival.

午夜时分通常是点炮仗的好时辰。在某些地区,正月初一的早晨也满是鞭炮齐鸣,鞭炮声此起彼伏。放鞭炮的习俗源自两千年前关于年兽的传说。当时人们用火烧竹子,使之爆裂发声,以驱逐年兽。在火药的发明问世之后,有人将火药装在竹筒里燃放,从而代替了用火烧竹子的古老习俗。不过因为放鞭炮很容易引起火灾,许多地区都禁止燃放鞭炮,除非在一些指定的地区。中国人也习惯在元宵节当晚放烟火。

 

Red Envelope  | 红包

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Red envelope, also known as lucky money, is prepared for children by adults and the elderly and given after the reunion dinner. In folk culture, the children will live safe and sound for the whole year if they get lucky money. This custom still remains and the amount of money is increasing. Children use their money to buy books or other school supplies.Some families also save the money for future use or use it to help cultivate in their children the habit of saving.


红包又名压岁钱,通常在吃完年夜饭后由长辈发给晚辈。民间文化认为晚辈得到压岁钱后在新的一年就会身体健康,事事圆满。发压岁钱的习俗留存至今,压岁钱的数量也逐年递增。孩子们可以用压岁钱来购买图书、文具。有些家庭也会把孩子的压岁钱存着留待日后使用或者帮助孩子养成存钱的好习惯。

 


Following Days 节后



Visting Friends and Relatives  | 走亲访友

A special way for people to express good wishes to each other and an important activity during the festival is to visit their friends and relatives. In ancient times younger people had to salute the elderly by kowtowing; today they salute them by offering good wishes. Inresponse, the older generation gives them money wrapped in red paper.

走亲访友和拜年是一项约定俗成的春节必备项目。以往年轻人会给长辈磕头行礼,不过今天取而代之的是晚辈送给长辈新年的祝愿,长辈也会回赠压岁钱。

 

Generally speaking, people drop in at relatives and friends houses, greeting one another with Happy New Year. This custom has not changed. In some rural places, where families have many relatives, this activity lasts for several days. It is impolite to visit someone without a gift. Therefore, special local products, fruits, desserts,wines and other small gifts should be taken when you visit others.Although busy people choose to send greetings by telephone or e-mail, the old tradition of paying visits is still popular.

一般而言,人们去到亲朋好友家开口第一句都是“新年好”。这个习俗也留存至今。在一些农村地区,如果家族庞大,走访亲友甚至长达好几天!如果两手空空的去到别人家,这是极为失礼的。因此,去别人家拜年的时候总要捎上一些土特产、水果点心等,哪怕礼物再小,也不能空手而至。尽管现代人的生活节奏很快,甚至来不及打电话或发一封问候的邮件,不过走亲访友的习俗仍是必不可少的。

 

Temple Fairs | 逛庙会

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Temple fair is another old  practice in festival traditions, especially in Beijing. Although they originally were a form of worship connected with temples, now they are more like carnivals and are sometimes held in parks.Traditional cultural performances such as playing diabolo, traditional magic,puppet shows and so on can be seen. Besides, people can buy all kinds of daily using things at very low prices.During and after the festival, Beijing has temple fairs almost every day in different places such as Wangfujing, Altar ofthe Earth and Dragon Pool Park.


逛庙会是另一项由来已久的春节传统活动,尤其是在北京。尽管庙会源于古代宗教庆典,但是现在更像是一种贸易集会,有时也会在公园里举办。庙会活动种类丰富,有玩空竹、魔术表演、木偶戏等等,各类活动应有尽有,精彩纷呈。此外,在庙会里你还能淘到各种廉价的日用品和小玩意。北京每年都会在春节期间以及春节后举办庙会,甚至每天在北京各地都有庙会,例如王府井、地坛和龙潭湖公园。

 

Enjoying Colorful Festive Lanterns | 闹元宵

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The Lantern Festival marks the end of the festival. Lanterns in different shapes are displayed on the evening of Jan.15th of lunar month. In ancient times, these lanterns were made of paper orsilk with candles placed inside. Now the materials have changed and the candles have replaced by bulbs or LEDs. In many cities, organizations or local government decorate the gardens and other places with lanterns so you can enjoy their beauty.

元宵节也称灯节,标志着春节进入尾声。正月十五那天,各地都有赏花灯的活动。古代的花灯通常由纸或者蚕丝制成,里面放置蜡烛。现如今花灯的材料不再拘泥于纸和蚕丝,蜡烛也由小灯泡和LED灯取代。在一些城市,某些政府机构和街道上也会高挂灯笼以供欣赏。

 

Shehuo:

Shehuo is often part of the Lantern Festival particularly in Northwestern China. Shehuo is a form of worship consisting of both shows and parades.  It includes a variety of performances such as the dragon and lion dances, yangko(a popular rural folk dance), and performers on stilts. The Shehuo stories comefrom Shanxi operas. People crowd the roads to watch the exciting parade.

社火,尤其在中国西北地区,是元宵节的组成部分。这是一种在祭祀或节日里迎神赛会上的各种杂戏、杂耍的表演。社火表演形式多种多样,包括舞龙舞狮、扭秧歌、踩高跷等。社火中最具表现力的是高台。多取材于秦腔故事。高台往往由经验丰富的民间艺人指挥建造,然后按故事内容扮成其中人物供大家观赏。

 

Glutinous rice balls | 元宵

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In many regions, the glutinous rice balls(Yuanxiao or Tangyuan) is a popular traditional food for the Lantern Festival.The dumplings are made of sticky rice flour stuffed with different fillings.Some do not have fillings. Their round shape symbolizes reunion, harmony andhappiness. During the night of the Lantern Festival, family members gather together to eat the delicious Rice Dumplings and appreciate the full moon.

在中国大多数地区都有正月十五闹元宵的传统习俗。元宵由糯米粉制成,跟饺子一样佐以不同馅料。有些元宵则是实心的。元宵顾名思义团团圆圆、和谐美满。在元宵节当晚,家庭成员会欢聚一堂,吃着可口的元宵,观赏圆月


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FMT -  Amy 2021-06-24 16:26:54 重新编辑

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