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考研英语常见近义词二
Jimmy 2016-03-29 13:59:21 发表于  [  实用英语  ]
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defeat, beat,win

1) defeat“击败,战败,指在竞争或斗争中打败对方,但不一定是最后得胜利,一般地指(希望,计划等)受挫或失败:

例如:They are always defeated but never beaten.     Black was defeated in the election.

2) beat击败,打败,通常指在各种比赛中击败对手

例如:We beat them by 3 points.

3) win 获胜,赢得,指在赛场上或战争中获胜,或在竞赛中获奖

例如:We won the football game yesterday.     Two boys won the prize in the competition.

 

ruin, damage, destroy

1) ruin指经过长时间的侵蚀而毁坏

2) damage一般是部分损坏

3) destroy指彻底的毁坏,摧毁

 

sowplantgrow

1) sow意为播、撒、播种、种,其后跟(theseeds植物(结成种状的)

例如:It’s time to sow wheat now .       Don’t sow the seeds of hatred

2) plant意为栽、插、移植,其后跟作物(多为苗状的)。

例如:He plants rice fastest in the village      The garden was planted with Chinese roses 

3) grow作及物动词时,意为种植、培植,后接宾语(不表明种状还是苗状,强调种植后的栽培及管理过程);作不及物动词时,意为生长、发育;作系动词时,意为变得

例如: They can only grow potatoes in the fields    It grows up straight and thin

 

fight about, fight for, fight against, fight with

1) fight about “……而打架(仗),后接打架(仗)的原因:

例如:No one knew what they fought about.

2) fight for “……而战,后接打仗、战斗的目的:

例如:The African people are fighting for their independence.

3) fight against “……作战,和……斗争,后接斗争的对象

例如:The soldiers were fighting against the flood in spite of the terrible weather.

4) fight with “……作战(斗争),与fight against同义,也可作……一起战斗之意,要根据上下文判断清楚

例如:Great Britain fought with (=on the side of) France against Germany.

 

provide, offer

1) provide 表示供应,提供;预防等,是供应者与被供应者之间一种相对固定的关系,具有客观性。

例如:Sheep provide wool.

The school provide tents, but we must bring our own food.

2) offer 表示提供;建议;出价等义,常表示提供者一种较主动的态度。

例如:He offered to help us    She offered him the computer for $1000.

 

fear, dread, fright, dismay, panic, terror, alarm

Fear有两个含义,担心

Dread总表示由经验而感知的。如汉语中一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳,在英语中有与此意义相当的“A burnt child dreads fire.”的俗语。

Fright强调由于受到骤然的震惊而表现出的惊怕

Dismay表示由于某种危险已经逼近而产生的沮丧惊愕

Panic强调难以抑制的惧怕,而且常常是某种无根据的或者无道理的惧怕。

Terror表示由经验而感知的极为强烈的恐惧

Alarm指由于危险突然出现而产生的惊慌和恐惧。

 

prepareprepare forprepare…forbe prepared forbegetready

1) prepare sth.意为准备某事”强调准备的过程或动作,宾语必须是这一动作的直接承受者;另有配置、调制之意。

2) prepare for意为……作准备for后面的宾语是准备的目的,即所要应付的情况。

3) prepare sthfor意为……做好准备

4) be prepared for强调准备好的状态。

5) begetready意为准备好,着重指准备的结果。begetready to do还有乐于干……”的意思。

 

21 notice, take notice of, take no notice of

Notice无意注意

例如:He suddenly noticed that a snake was under the tree.

Take notice of表示有意注意

例如:Take notice of the snake under the tree.

3Take no notice of意思是不理睬

例如:He took no notice of what I said.

 

22 spendtakepay

1) spend“花费常用于 Sbspendssome moneytimeon sth.或 Sbspendssome moneytime)(indoing sth.其主语一般是人。

例如:He spent 20 yuan on the pen

I spent a weekinfinishing reading the book

2) take常用于占用或花费时间,其句型为:Sthtakes sbtime It takes sbtime to do sth

例如:The work will take us two hours    It took me three days to travel to Beijing

3) pay“付款、给……报酬,它可作及物动词也可作不及物动词。pay常用于以下几种句型:①Sbpayssbmoney意为某人付款给另一个人或某人给另一个人多少报酬

例如:He pays me fifty yuan a week

②pay for sth.意为……款、给……报酬

例如:He has paid for the meal

③pay money for sth.意为花多少钱买某物

例如:My father paid 40 pounds for the desk

 

23 add; add to; add…to; add up to

1) add加,增加解时,既可作及物动词,又可用作不及物动词;作又说,补充说解时,与直接或间接引语连用。

例如:If the tea is too strong, add some more hot water

After a short while, he added that he would try his best

2) add to意为增添,增加,增进

例如:The bad weather added to our difficulties

3) add...to意为……加到……”,是把前一项加到后一项之后或之中。

例如:Add two to seven, and you will get nine

4) add up to意为加起来总共是/累计得,该短语不用于被动语态。

例如:All his school education added up to no more than one year

Jimmy 2021-11-28 11:32:03 重新编辑

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