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【双语阅读】发生踩踏时如何自救
Angell 2015-01-08 10:15:09 发表于  [  实用英语  ]
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Mass casualties can result from a human stampede. A peaceful crowd can quickly turn into a senseless panicked heaving mass in which rational behavior by any single individual becomes nearly impossible. What’s worse is that the stampede can be triggered while there is no actual danger. Under certain situations, a crowd that has grown to a big and tight enough size and density  reaches a critical state at which the slightest twitch is sufficient to send it into a stampede.

踩踏可造成大规模死伤。安静的人群可瞬间变得拥挤,人群失去理智,开始恐慌,任何个体可能都无法保持理性。更糟的是,即使没有实际的危险,也可能触发踩踏。某些情况下,人群数量和密度达到临界状态时,极微不足道的推搡都足以演变为踩踏。



Panicked crowds move fast and release an incredible amount of energy, usually compared to the energy generated by a running train: once a crowd gets moving it is very hard to stop, and the flow of people could literally sweep you off your feet.

慌乱的人群会快速移动,释放出令人难以置信的能量,通常等于一辆行驶的火车产生的能量:一旦人群开始移动,就很难停下来,人流可让你一下就摔倒。



It is interesting to note that the force of only 6 or 7 people pushing in the same direction can generate up to 1000 lbs of force – enough to bend steel railings and topple brick walls. During a deadly stampede, people can even die standing up… people die when pressure is applied to their bodies in a front to back direction, causing them not to be able to breath. When pressure is applied to their side, they often survive, probably because their rib cages are protecting their ability to breath.

值得一提的是,大约六七个人朝一个方向推挤产生的力可高达1000磅力,足以压弯钢制栏杆,推倒砖墙。在致命的踩踏中,人可能站着被活生生挤死:身体正面承受压力,使人无法呼吸。如果压力是侧向的,则通常不会致命,可能是因为胸腔的保护作用,不致窒息。



 


If you are in a crowd, a first and most important thing is to make yourself familiar with your surroundings and mentally notice alternate exits. No matter where you are, make sure you always know how to get out.
如果你在人群中,首要的事是熟悉周遭环境,并留意不同的出口。不管你身处何处,你一定要确保自己知道如何出去。


Make yourself aware of the type of ground you are standing on, and know that in a crowd of moving people wet or uneven ground can be slippery or hazardous, causing you to fall.

了解你落脚的地面类型,要知道移动的人群中,湿滑或不平的地面有可能让你摔倒。



Be aware of the general atmosphere of the event, as panic situations can often be anticipated. When in danger, a few seconds can make all the difference, giving you the possibility of taking advantage of your escaping route. Always stay closer to the escape route.

时刻留心周遭氛围,因为恐慌情境通常是可预测的。当你身处危险时,几秒钟的时间都可以让你死里逃生,确保你可以利用自己的逃生路线:千万要离逃生路线近一点。



If you find yourself in the middle of a moving crowd do not fight against the pressure, do notstand still or sit down, because you could easily get trampled.

如果你发现自己身处移动人群的中央,不要反抗压力,不要站着不动或坐下来,因为这样你可能很容易被人踩踏。



Instead, move in the same direction of the crowd; take advantage of any space that may open up to move sideways to the crowd movement where the flow is weaker.

正确的做法是,顺着人群移动的方向移动;利用任何空出的间隙,往人群侧面移动,那里人流不那么密集。



Keep your hands up by your chest, like a boxer – it gives you movement and protects your chest.

双手像拳击手那样放在胸前,这样,你就有活动空间,还能保护你的胸部。



If you fall, get up quickly. If you can’t get up because you are injured, get someone to pull you back up. If you have kids, lift them up.

如果摔倒了,要马上站起来。如果因为受伤不能站起来,让人把你拉起来。如果你带着小孩,把他们举起来。



If you fall and cannot get up, keep moving by crawling in the same direction of the crowd, or if that is not possible, then cover your head with your arms and curl up into the fetal position (do not lay on your stomach or back, as this dangerously exposes your lungs).

如果你摔倒并且不能站起来,顺着人群移动方向爬行,如果这也无法做到,那就双手护住头部,并蜷缩成胎姿(不要趴着或躺着,因为这让你的肺暴露在危险中)。



The worst scenario is to be pushed by the crowd against an immovable object. Try to stay away from walls, fences or barricades, as the crowd pressure can build up rapidly.

最恐怖的境况是被人群挤向无法移动的物体。记住要远离墙壁、栅栏或障碍物,因为人群压力会迅速叠加上升。



After you’re pushed forward, like in a wave there’s a lull. In that lull is your chance to move, and the way you move is on a diagonal, between pockets of people. There’s always space between people. A couple of steps sideways, another wave surge, then another couple of steps in the next lull. You work your way out that way till you get to the periphery.

你被推挤之后,挤压就像波浪会有暂歇。这个暂歇就是你移动的机会,你可沿对角线方向移动,在人群中擦过。人和人之间总会有空间。向侧面移动几步,又一波“浪涌”袭来,下次暂歇时再移动几步。以这样的方式慢慢移向人群外围。



Angell 2021-12-08 13:10:51 重新编辑

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Arthur 2015-01-08 10:26

沙发是我

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Arthur 2015-01-08 10:26

板凳是我

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Arthur 2015-01-08 10:26

地板是我

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Arthur 2015-01-08 10:26

下水道也是我

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