3. 名词（代词，形容词，副词，介词）+ 分词
4. With + 名词 （代词） + 分词 (形容词）
例：a) It being raining, I decided to stay at home.
b) Speech having been delivered, discussion started.
c) he entered the room, with his hands open（holding a rifle).
(1995) 45 cliffs no longer crumbling, the beaches are 46 of the material which would 47 feed them.
45. A. For
Do what you need to do to keep the wolf __7__ from the door, the world __8__ your thesis adviser, team leader, or laboratory director. Then use the rest of your time, perhaps at night or on the weekends, to do __9__ you really want to do.
8. A. is
How you got there doesn’t concern me.
Growing vegetables needs constant watering.
Eight hundred dollars is enough to live on.
3. 以-s结尾的专有名词（linguistics, economics, measles, diabetes等），谓语通常用单数形式。
Two thirds of the villages are flooded (the area is under water).
5. 不定代词(one, each, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something等)作主语，谓语用单数。
Everyone knows that you’ve come here.
If anybody wants to see me, let them wait till I come back. (--thing 的情况例外)
6. 谓语同并列主语的第一部分保持一致（as well as, with, along with, together with, as much as, accompanied by, besides, but, except, in addition to, like, more than, no less than, rather than, including等）
He no less than I is interested in literature.
7. 谓语同最贴近的主语保持一致。(or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, not…but, partly…partly等)
Either my father or my brothers are coming.
8. each, every, many a, no …+主语，谓语用单数。
Many a student has been to the Great Wall.
(2000) …Mexico City already 52 twenty million people and Calcutta twelve million. According to the World Bank, 53 of Africa’s cities are growing by 10% a year, 54 of urbanization ever recorded.
53. A. none