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【连载】初中英语语法梳理 II | 介词进阶版 (上)
Stephen 2016-04-17 13:45:21 发表于  [  国内考试  ]
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二、介词

             Between Over Under.jpg

 

介词又叫做前置词,是一种虚词,不能单独在句子当中担当成分,它后面必须接名词、代词或相当于名词的其他词类搭配(介词+宾语)构成介词短语;和动词搭配构成短语动词,然后才能够在句子当中充当成分。


介词分为简单介词,如:at, in, on, besides, since, for等;合成介词,如:inside, outside, without, within, into, onto等;短语介词(或成语介词)


如:because of, in front of, instead of, in spite of等;


二重介词,如:from behind, until after等。


一、介词短语的句法功能


介词在句子中可以充当定语、状语、表语、以及宾语补足语等。


1.         作定语

介词短语在句中做定语时须位于被修饰词之后。

The key to the door  is missing.

The water-tower in front of our school was built in 1988.


2.         作表语(或称为:主语的补足语)

Some students are in the classroom, and some on the playground.

As we know,Japanis to the east ofChina.


3.         作宾语补足语(或称为:宾语的表语)

Did you see a pen under my desk this morning?

They have sent another rocket into the sky.


4.         作状语

1)         On Sundays, the family are mostly out. (时间状语)

2)         On top of the hill stands a TV tower. (地点状语)

3)         He is used to sleeping with all the windows open. (伴随状语)

4)         In the search for the lost child, the villagers went all out. (目的状语)

5)         All the work must be done by hand. (方式状语)

6)        At times, I go to the cinema. (频度状语)

7)         She is by far the best student in our class. (程度状语)

8)         Because of poverty, he couldn’t go to school. (原因状语)

9)         To my surprise, he got the first prize in the contest. (结果状语 / 或评注性状语)

10)     Without our Party, we couldn’t live a happy life. (条件状语)

11)     In spite of great efforts we failed to carry our plans through. (让步状语)

12)     As a matter of fact, nobody agreed to his project. (评注性状语)

In my opinion, you’d better go with us.


二、介词的复合结构


介词+宾语+补足语可以构成介词的复合结构,在句子当中可充当表语、定语、状语、补语等。这种结构中的宾语和补足语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,使得句子意义更加丰富。常见的这类介词有with, without, like, of等。


1.         介词+宾语+形容词

He is used to sleeping with all the windows open.


2.         介词+宾语+分词

Bamboo leaves swing in the wind like slim fingers reaching to touch something.

At the beginning of school, the noise of desks being opened and closed and lessons (of being) repeated at the top of the children’s voices could be heard out in the street.

The wounded boy glared at the nobleman with his teeth clenched.


3.         介词+宾语+不定式

The cat humped its back just like a fierce tiger to jump upon me.


4.         介词+宾语+副词

The little boy rushed out of the house without anything on.


5.         介词+宾语+介词短语

The teacher entered the classroom with a book under his arm.


三、介词的叠用


在少数介词之后还可接另一个介词短语,也就是我们所称的二重介词。


如:

The naughty boy suddenly rushed out from behind the tree to frighten the girl.


In the spring, new bamboo shoots come out from around their own roots.


He kept on working until after lunch.


四、介词+and+介词


有些介词短语用两个意义相反的介词构成从而使句子精简化。

Not knowing what to do, the worried officer walked up and down the room.

There are many trees in and outside the town.


五、介词与其同形的与副词区别


有些介词可做副词用,但我们知道副词可以单独在句子中担当成分,而介词须加宾语构成短语才可在句子中充当成分。

试比较:

Please come in. (in为副词 = into the room)

We have no car, but we can go there without. (without为副词 = without a car)

Although the exam was difficult, I managed to get through. (through为副词 = through the exam)


本文选自“初中英语语法梳理”由Stephanie释义,


可以结合“重点介词”的帖子总结学习。


http://bbs.51talk.com/Forum/detail/10217.html



相信大家学完这三个帖子,介词就搞定啦~


如有任何问题请和我们联系哦~





Stephen 2021-11-27 05:25:14 重新编辑

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